Solstices and Equinoxes Melbourne Toronto
The equinoxes, solstices and seasons only exist because the axis of rotation of the Earth is at an angle of 23.4 degrees, to the vertical with respect to the plane (the ecliptic) formed by the revolution of the Earth about the Sun.

 

Because the Earth's axis is directed at the same point in space as it revolves around the Sun, the angle of tilt of the axis with respect to the Sun varies, from a minimum of 0 degrees (which defines the equinoxes) to a maximum of 23.4 degrees toward or away (which defines the summer and winter solstices, respectively).

 

Southern Hemisphere   Northern Hemisphere
Angle from perpendicular to ecliptic Angle from perpendicular to ecliptic
The change in angle between the southern end of the Earth's axis and the ecliptic for 1 year (ie. 1 revolution).
Positive values indicate tilt toward the Sun.
  The change in angle between the northern end of the Earth's axis and the ecliptic for 1 year (ie. 1 revolution).
Positive values indicate tilt toward the Sun.

 

The subsolar point is the point on the Earth's surface where the Sun's radiation strikes at a 90 degree angle; alternatively it is the point on the Earth where the Sun is directly overhead at noon.

 

June Solstice Equinoxes December Solstice
Subsolar point Tropic of Cancer Equator Tropic of Capricorn
23.4 degrees N 0 degrees 23.4 degrees S

 

Because the Earth's orbit is slightly elliptical, there is a point on the orbit where the Earth is further away from the Sun than at any other time (Aphelion, ~July 4) and a point approximately opposite on the orbit where the Earth is closer to the Sun than at any other time (Perihelion, ~Jan 3).

 

Revolution of Earth about Sun

 

The UTC values for equinoxes and solstices were calculated from the Stellafane web site, and rounded to the nearest minute.
An explanation of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), which approximates to Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), is available here.

 

Melbourne, Australia: Longitude:  145° 08' East Top
Event June Solstice Mon, 21 Jun 2021, 1:32 PM AEST  

 

GMT values have been converted to Australian Eastern Standard Time (GMT + 10), and are shown below:
Note: Add 1 hour to obtain correct local times for the December Solstice and March Equinox for the states in Australia that change to Australian Eastern Daylight Time during the warmer months.

 

March Equinox
Autumn
June Solstice
Winter
September Equinox
Spring
December Solstice
Summer
2020
Mar 20
13:50
Jun 21
7:43
Sep 22
23:30
Dec 21
20:02
 
2021
Mar 20
19:37
Jun 21
13:32
Sep 23
5:21
Dec 22
1:59
 
2022
Mar 21
1:33
Jun 21
19:13
Sep 23
11:04
Dec 22
7:48
 
2023
Mar 21
7:24
Jun 22
0:57
Sep 23
16:50
Dec 22
13:27
 
2024
Mar 20
13:06
Jun 21
6:50
Sep 22
22:43
Dec 21
19:20
 
2025
Mar 20
19:01
Jun 21
12:42
Sep 23
4:19
Dec 22
1:03
 
2026
Mar 21
0:45
Jun 21
18:24
Sep 23
10:05
Dec 22
6:50
 
2027
Mar 21
6:24
Jun 22
0:10
Sep 23
16:01
Dec 22
12:42
 
2028
Mar 20
12:17
Jun 21
6:01
Sep 22
21:45
Dec 21
18:20
 
2029
Mar 20
18:01
Jun 21
11:48
Sep 23
3:37
Dec 22
0:14
 
2030
Mar 20
23:51
Jun 21
17:31
Sep 23
9:27
Dec 22
6:09
 

 

Number of times for a particular date:
   
Mar 20
7
 
Jun 21
9
 
Sep 22
3
 
Dec 21
3
 
   
Mar 21
4
 
Jun 22
2
 
Sep 23
8
 
Dec 22
8
 

 

A better idea of the relative frequencies for particular Melbourne dates over a 142 year period are shown here.

 

Toronto, Canada: Longitude:  79° 22' West Top
Event June Solstice Sun, 20 Jun 2021, 11:32 PM EDT  

 

GMT values have been converted to Eastern Standard Time (GMT - 5), and are shown below:
Note: Add 1 hour to obtain correct local times for the March Equinox, June Solstice and September Equinox for the areas that change to Eastern Daylight Time during the warmer months.

 

March Equinox
Spring
June Solstice
Summer
September Equinox
Autumn
December Solstice
Winter
2020
 
Mar 19
22:50
 
Jun 20
16:43
 
Sep 22
8:30
 
Dec 21
5:02
 
2021
 
Mar 20
4:37
 
Jun 20
22:32
 
Sep 22
14:21
 
Dec 21
10:59
 
2022
 
Mar 20
10:33
 
Jun 21
4:13
 
Sep 22
20:04
 
Dec 21
16:48
 
2023
 
Mar 20
16:24
 
Jun 21
9:57
 
Sep 23
1:50
 
Dec 21
22:27
 
2024
 
Mar 19
22:06
 
Jun 20
15:50
 
Sep 22
7:43
 
Dec 21
4:20
 
2025
 
Mar 20
4:01
 
Jun 20
21:42
 
Sep 22
13:19
 
Dec 21
10:03
 
2026
 
Mar 20
9:45
 
Jun 21
3:24
 
Sep 22
19:05
 
Dec 21
15:50
 
2027
 
Mar 20
15:24
 
Jun 21
9:10
 
Sep 22
1:01
 
Dec 21
21:42
 
2028
 
Mar 19
21:17
 
Jun 20
15:01
 
Sep 22
6:45
 
Dec 21
3:20
 
2029
 
Mar 20
3:01
 
Jun 20
20:48
 
Sep 22
12:37
 
Dec 21
9:14
 
2030
 
Mar 20
8:51
 
Jun 21
2:31
 
Sep 22
18:27
 
Dec 21
15:09
 

 

Number of times for a particular date:
   
Mar 19
3
 
Jun 20
6
 
Sep 22
9
 
Dec 21
11
 
   
Mar 20
8
 
Jun 21
5
 
Sep 23
2
 
Dec 22
0
 

 

A better idea of the relative frequencies for particular Toronto dates over a 142 year period are shown here.

 

Links to other detailed observations and explanations:
Perihelion and Aphelion (Time and Date)
Milankovitch Cycles (NASA)
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