Solstices and Equinoxes Melbourne Toronto
The equinoxes, solstices and seasons only exist because the axis of rotation of the Earth is at an angle of 23.4 degrees, to the vertical with respect to the plane (the ecliptic) formed by the revolution of the Earth about the Sun.

 

Because the Earth's axis is directed at the same point in space as it revolves around the Sun, the angle of tilt of the axis with respect to the Sun varies, from a minimum of 0 degrees (which defines the equinoxes) to a maximum of 23.4 degrees toward or away (which defines the summer and winter solstices, respectively).

 

Southern Hemisphere   Northern Hemisphere
Angle from perpendicular to ecliptic Angle from perpendicular to ecliptic
The change in angle between the southern end of the Earth's axis and the ecliptic for 1 year (ie. 1 revolution).
Positive values indicate tilt toward the Sun.
  The change in angle between the northern end of the Earth's axis and the ecliptic for 1 year (ie. 1 revolution).
Positive values indicate tilt toward the Sun.

 

The subsolar point is the point on the Earth's surface where the Sun's radiation strikes at a 90 degree angle; alternatively it is the point on the Earth where the Sun is directly overhead at noon.

 

June Solstice Equinoxes December Solstice
Subsolar point Tropic of Cancer Equator Tropic of Capricorn
23.4 degrees N 0 degrees 23.4 degrees S

 

Because the Earth's orbit is slightly elliptical, there is a point on the orbit where the Earth is further away from the Sun than at any other time (Aphelion, ~July 4) and a point approximately opposite on the orbit where the Earth is closer to the Sun than at any other time (Perihelion, ~Jan 3).

 

Revolution of Earth about Sun

 

The times for equinoxes and solstices (as well as aphelion & perihelion) may be calculated from the U.S. Navy web site.
An explanation of Universal Time (UT), which approximates to Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), is given on the same site.

 

Melbourne, Australia: Longitude:  145° 08' East Top
Event September Equinox Mon, 23 Sep 2019, 5:50 PM AEST  

 

GMT values have been converted to Australian Eastern Standard Time (GMT + 10), and are shown below:
Note: Add 1 hour to obtain correct local times for the December Solstice and March Equinox for the states in Australia that change to Australian Eastern Daylight Time during the warmer months.

 

March Equinox
Autumn
June Solstice
Winter
September Equinox
Spring
December Solstice
Summer
2001
Mar 20
23:31
Jun 21
17:38
Sep 23
9:04
Dec 22
5:21
 
2002
Mar 21
5:16
Jun 21
23:24
Sep 23
14:55
Dec 22
11:14
 
2003
Mar 21
11:00
Jun 22
5:10
Sep 23
20:47
Dec 22
17:04
 
2004
Mar 20
16:49
Jun 21
10:57
Sep 23
2:30
Dec 21
22:42
 
2005
Mar 20
22:33
Jun 21
16:46
Sep 23
8:23
Dec 22
4:35
 
2006
Mar 21
4:26
Jun 21
22:26
Sep 23
14:03
Dec 22
10:22
 
2007
Mar 21
10:07
Jun 22
4:06
Sep 23
19:51
Dec 22
16:08
 
2008
Mar 20
15:48
Jun 21
9:59
Sep 23
1:44
Dec 21
22:04
 
2009
Mar 20
21:44
Jun 21
15:45
Sep 23
7:18
Dec 22
3:47
 
2010
Mar 21
3:32
Jun 21
21:28
Sep 23
13:09
Dec 22
9:38
 
2011
Mar 21
9:21
Jun 22
3:16
Sep 23
19:05
Dec 22
15:30
 
2012
Mar 20
15:14
Jun 21
9:09
Sep 23
0:49
Dec 21
21:12
 
2013
Mar 20
21:02
Jun 21
15:04
Sep 23
6:44
Dec 22
3:11
 
2014
Mar 21
2:57
Jun 21
20:51
Sep 23
12:29
Dec 22
9:03
 
2015
Mar 21
8:45
Jun 22
2:38
Sep 23
18:20
Dec 22
14:48
 
2016
Mar 20
14:30
Jun 21
8:34
Sep 23
0:21
Dec 21
20:44
 
2017
Mar 20
20:28
Jun 21
14:24
Sep 23
6:02
Dec 22
2:28
 
2018
Mar 21
2:15
Jun 21
20:07
Sep 23
11:54
Dec 22
8:22
 
2019
Mar 21
7:58
Jun 22
1:54
Sep 23
17:50
Dec 22
14:19
 
2020
Mar 20
13:49
Jun 21
7:43
Sep 22
23:30
Dec 21
20:02
 

 

Number of times for a particular date:
   
Mar 20
10
 
Jun 21
15
 
Sep 22
1
 
Dec 21
5
 
   
Mar 21
10
 
Jun 22
5
 
Sep 23
19
 
Dec 22
15
 

 

A better idea of the relative frequencies for particular Melbourne dates over a 142 year period are shown here.

 

Toronto, Canada: Longitude:  79° 22' West Top
Event September Equinox Mon, 23 Sep 2019, 3:50 AM EDT  

 

GMT values have been converted to Eastern Standard Time (GMT - 5), and are shown below:
Note: Add 1 hour to obtain correct local times for the March Equinox, June Solstice and September Equinox for the areas that change to Eastern Daylight Time during the warmer months.

 

March Equinox
Spring
June Solstice
Summer
September Equinox
Autumn
December Solstice
Winter
2001
 
Mar 20
8:31
 
Jun 21
2:38
 
Sep 22
18:04
 
Dec 21
14:21
 
2002
 
Mar 20
14:16
 
Jun 21
8:24
 
Sep 22
23:55
 
Dec 21
20:14
 
2003
 
Mar 20
20:00
 
Jun 21
14:10
 
Sep 23
5:47
 
Dec 22
2:04
 
2004
 
Mar 20
1:49
 
Jun 20
19:57
 
Sep 22
11:30
 
Dec 21
7:42
 
2005
 
Mar 20
7:33
 
Jun 21
1:46
 
Sep 22
17:23
 
Dec 21
13:35
 
2006
 
Mar 20
13:26
 
Jun 21
7:26
 
Sep 22
23:03
 
Dec 21
19:22
 
2007
 
Mar 20
19:07
 
Jun 21
13:06
 
Sep 23
4:51
 
Dec 22
1:08
 
2008
 
Mar 20
0:48
 
Jun 20
18:59
 
Sep 22
10:44
 
Dec 21
7:04
 
2009
 
Mar 20
6:44
 
Jun 21
0:45
 
Sep 22
16:18
 
Dec 21
12:47
 
2010
 
Mar 20
12:32
 
Jun 21
6:28
 
Sep 22
22:09
 
Dec 21
18:38
 
2011
 
Mar 20
18:21
 
Jun 21
12:16
 
Sep 23
4:05
 
Dec 22
0:30
 
2012
 
Mar 20
0:14
 
Jun 20
18:09
 
Sep 22
9:49
 
Dec 21
6:12
 
2013
 
Mar 20
6:02
 
Jun 21
0:04
 
Sep 22
15:44
 
Dec 21
12:11
 
2014
 
Mar 20
11:57
 
Jun 21
5:51
 
Sep 22
21:29
 
Dec 21
18:03
 
2015
 
Mar 20
17:45
 
Jun 21
11:38
 
Sep 23
3:20
 
Dec 21
23:48
 
2016
 
Mar 19
23:30
 
Jun 20
17:34
 
Sep 22
9:21
 
Dec 21
5:44
 
2017
 
Mar 20
5:28
 
Jun 20
23:24
 
Sep 22
15:02
 
Dec 21
11:28
 
2018
 
Mar 20
11:15
 
Jun 21
5:07
 
Sep 22
20:54
 
Dec 21
17:22
 
2019
 
Mar 20
16:58
 
Jun 21
10:54
 
Sep 23
2:50
 
Dec 21
23:19
 
2020
 
Mar 19
22:49
 
Jun 20
16:43
 
Sep 22
8:30
 
Dec 21
5:02
 

 

Number of times for a particular date:
   
Mar 19
2
 
Jun 20
6
 
Sep 22
15
 
Dec 21
17
 
   
Mar 20
18
 
Jun 21
14
 
Sep 23
5
 
Dec 22
3
 

 

A better idea of the relative frequencies for particular Toronto dates over a 142 year period are shown here.

 

Links to other detailed observations and explanations:
Earth at Perihelion (NASA)
Milankovitch Cycles (US Naval Observatory)
Top